White Paper

Quantum Annealing Amid Local Ruggedness and Global Frustration

J. King, S. Yarkoni, J. Raymond, I. Oz dan, A. D. King, M. Mohammadi Nevisi, J. P. Hilton, and C. C. McGeoch

We introduce a problem class with two attributes crucial to the evaluation of quantum annealing processors: local ruggedness (i.e., tall, thin energy barriers in the energy landscape) so that quantum tunneling can be harnessed as a useful resource, and global frustration so that the problems are combinatorially challenging and representative of real-world inputs. We evaluate the new 2000-qubit D-Wave quantum processing unit (QPU) on these inputs, comparing it to software solvers that include both GPU-based solvers and a CPU-based solver which is highly tailored to the D-Wave topology. The D-Wave QPU solidly outperforms the software solvers: when we consider pure annealing time, the D-Wave QPU is three to four orders of magnitude faster than software solvers in both optimization and sampling evaluations.